French Colonial Louisiana and the Atlantic World

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The weather turned out to be the greatest problem, not European rivals. The colonists moved to Port Royal on Nova Scotia after the bitter winter of The settlement was abandoned in , after the king of France revoked his grant of a fur monopoly that had justified the settlement in the first place, but more French occupants returned in In , just one year after Jamestown, Samuel de Champlain founded Quebec. Like St.

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Augustine and Sante Fe in New Mexico also founded in - and unlike Jamestown - Quebec has survived to the present day. The English gained political and military control over Quebec in after the Conquest known as the French and Indian War in the English colonies to the south. Despite the transfer of authority to the Eglish, the culture of Quebec has remained stubbornly French. The next settlement by the French in North America was in , six years after the English unloaded their first three ships at Jamestown. The company protected its claim to territory, granted in the Third Charter by King James I, by expelling the rival French.

In , Samuel Argall sailed north from Jamestown, after capturing Pocahontas in a visit to the Patawomeck tribe. His intent was to capture the French colonists, who: 1. After Argall surprised and captured the settlement at Mount Desert Island, the English lacked room for all of their new captives.

French Colonial Louisiana

Most of the French colonists were allowed to sail back to France, but two Jesuits priests were carried back to Jamestown. Argall brought those two priests with him when he sailed north from Virginia on a second expedition that year. He found and destroyed the French settlement that had been re-started at Port Royal in On his return to Jamestown, a storm blew Argall's ship east into the Atlantic Ocean.

French Colonization of North America (New France Colonial America APUSH) @TomRichey

He landed at the Azores and then sailed on to England. Croix, diverted to the Azores, and then carried to England. From there, the two well-traveled priests were returned safely to France.

French Colonial Louisiana and the Atlantic World | Journal of American History | Oxford Academic

The French strategy for settling Canada, the Gulf Coast, and the Mississippi River watershed was to create trading stations to acquire furs from Native Americans, and to support French shipping. A small number of French Catholics living in New France would acquire resources and create wealth for sponsors back in Europe. That, at least, was the plan. The French strategy was similar to the Spanish approach, in that both relied upon the local residents to supply the colonies.

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The Spanish Law of the Indies in detailed a planned settlement pattern that was based on religious missions, military presidios, and civilian pueblos. French officials and entrepreneurs explored widely across the North American continent. Virginia officials at that time were just discovering the distance to the crest of the Blue Ridge.

The French discovered the geography of the Ohio River watershed, and made contact with the Native Americans living there, before the Virginia colonists became familiar with the Shenandoah River watershed. April 9, by George Catlin. Lawrence River or Ohio River valleys.

"Francais, negres et sauvages": Constructing race in colonial Louisiana

French traders chose instead to operate in the backcountry through Native American allies. Their main trading posts were Montreal and Quebec, with forts in the backcountry to steer Native Americans with furs and deerskins to the St. Lawrence River. Frenchmen lived in Native American towns, establishing families, learning the languages, and creating alliances.

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Priests sought to create converts, but the French adopted the lifestyle of the Native Americans. Around the Great Lakes in particular, the French were able to cultivate the "middle ground" between Native and European cultures. The French government minimized the development costs of New France. Profits were expected to flow to France without substantial investment in the lands on the other side of the Atlantic Ocean.

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French kings initially created proprietary colonies, granting seigneur rights to land in exchange for recruiting colonists. Permanent settlement started after , when Henry IV gave Pierre Du Gua de Monts a year monopoly over the fur trade between the th parallels, roughly from the mouth of the Delaware River north to the mouth of the St. During the first 50 years of colonization, the French failed to establish colonies on the Atlantic seaboard south of the Saint Lawrence River. The created only a minimal presence on the Gulf Coast and in the Mississippi River valley, and were slow to expand the population of settlements on Nova Scotia and in the St. Lawrence River watershed. Immigration from France to the settlements on the St. Lawrence River was limited to Catholics. Religious restrictions were looser for colonization efforts at Charlesfort and Fort Caroline in the 's, but a century later King Louis XIV repressed French Protestants Huguenots as he created a centralized state.

There were still less than French settlers at Quebec in when Cardinal Richelieu consolidated different entrepreneurial initiatives into the Compagnie de la Nouvelle France Company of One Hundred Associates. That charter was revoked in There were only 3, French "habitants" in New France along the St. Lawrence River in , in contrast to the 90, settlers in the English and Dutch colonies to the south. The British crown did not finance that immigration. Many of the colonists were transported across the Atlantic Ocean at their own expense, which was often paid through a commitment to provide labor as an indentured servant for up to seven years.

The other key group of immigrants were slaves.

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The idealistic interpretation of Ellis Island should be revisited. It's impossible to understand the country without knowing who's been kept out, who's been let in, and how they've been treated once they arrive. When the government executed Julius and Ethel Rosenberg, the welfare of their two boys was a secondary concern. The U. It bought the right to displace Native Americans from that land. An interactive set of maps and narratives of the forced migration of approximately , enslaved people from Native Americans say the law protects their children.

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