The Condition of Labour (Illustrated)

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Employment of women and young persons. Annual leave provision. Accident and occupational diseases. Dangerous operations. Obligations and rights of employees. When to consult and refer. To determine the minimum wages in industry and trade where labour organisations are non-existent or ineffective. Applicable to all employees engaged to do any work, skilled, unskilled manual or clerical, in a scheduled employment, including out-workers.

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Fixation of minimum wages. Fixation of minimum wage of employees. Procedure for fixing and revising minimum wages. Obligation of employees. Rights of workers. To ensure regular and prompt payment of wages and to prevent the exploitation of a wage earner by prohibiting arbitrary fines and deductions from his wages. Application for payment of wages to persons employed in any factory.

Wages include all remuneration, bonus, or sums payable for termination of service, but do not include house rent reimbursement, light vehicle charges, medical expenses, TA, etc. Responsibility of the employer for payment of wages and fixing the wage period. Procedures and time period in wage payment.

Demoskratia

Payment of wages to discharged workers. Permissible deductions from wages. Nominations to be made by employees.

Penalties for contravention of the Act. Equal remuneration for men and women. Obligations and rights of employers. To make provisions for the future of the industrial worker after he retires or for his dependents in the case of his early death. Application to factories and establishments employing 20 or more persons.

Can be made applicable by central government to establishments employing less than 20 persons or if the majority of employees agree.

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Excludes establishments employing 50 or more persons or 20 or more persons but less than 50 persons, until the expiry of three years in the case of the former, and five years in the case of the former, and five years in the case of the latter, from the date of setting up of establishment. Applicable to all persons who are employed directly or indirectly through contractors in any kind of work.

Apart from terminal disbursal of non-refundable withdrawals for Life Insurance Policies House building Medical treatment Marriage Higher education Family pension Retirement-cum-withdrawal benefits Deposit linked insurance Amount equal to the average balance in Provident Fund of deceased subject to a maximum of Rs. Not to be required to work beyond 9 hours between 6 A. Separate toilets and washing facilities to be provided in employment covered by the 3rd and 6th laws.

Maternity benefits to be provided on completion of 80 days working.


  • Production Possibilities Curve as a model of a country's economy.
  • Human Needs and Other Stories.
  • The Future in Your Hands;
  • Unemployment types.
  • Demand and Supply of Labour (Explained With Diagram).

Not required to work during six weeks immediately following the day of delivery or miscarriage. On medical certificate, advance maternity benefit to be allowed.

eBook: THE CONDITION OF LABOUR (ILLUSTRATED) | Livraria Cultura

Payment of equal remuneration to men and women workers for same or similar nature of work protected under the Act and also under the provisions at ISMW Act, mentioned above. No discrimination permissible in recruitment and service conditions except where employment of women is prohibited or restricted by or under any law. Employment of children under 14 years of age prohibited under the laws at Sl. Except in the process of family based work or recognised school-based activities, children not permitted to work in occupations connected with: Passenger, goods mail transport by Railway Cinder picking, cleaning of ash pits Building operations, construction Catering establishments in Railway premises or port limits Beedi making Carpet weaving Cement manufacturing Cloth printing Dyeing, weaving Manufacture of matches, explosives, fireworks Mica cutting, splitting Wool cleaning In occupations and processes other than the above mentioned, work by children is permissible only for six hours between 8.

Occupier of establishment employing children to give notice to local Inspector and maintain prescribed register. Compensation for Death Minimum - Rs. To provide statutory obligations for payment of bonus to persons employed in certain establishments on the basis of profits or productivity. Applicable all over India to factories under the Factories Act and to other establishments employing 20 or persons on any day during a year.

Government can extend its coverage to establishments employing between 10 and 20 workers. Eligibility for bonus. Payment of minimum and maximum bonus. Time limit for payment of bonus. Deductions from bonus.


  • Resurrection (Mills & Boon Nocturne Bites).
  • Divinity and Duality: Willard K. Willis on the Nature of Man.
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  • The Imposition of a Minimum Wage.
  • 4.1 Demand and Supply at Work in Labor Markets.
  • (2) Marginal Physical Product and Average Physical Product.

Computation of gross profits and available allocable surplus. Rights of employees. When the factory if registered under the Factories Act. When the number of employees in the establishment reaches 20 or above. When calculating the bonus. To provide statutory obligation and rights to employees and employers in the unorganised sector of employment, i. A state legislation; each state has framed its own rules for the Act. Applicable to all persons employed in an establishments with or without wages, except the members of the employer's family.

State government can exempt, either permanently or for a specified period, any establishments from all or any provisions of this Act. Communications of closure of the establishment within 15 days from the closing of the establishment. Lays down the hours of work per day and week. Lays down guidelines for spread-over, rest interval, opening and closing hours, closed days, national and religious holidays, overtime work. Rules for employment of children, young persons and women Rules for annual leave, maternity leave, sickness and casual leave, etc. Rules for employment and termination of service.

Maintenance of registers and records and display of notices. Obligations of employers. Obligations of employees. At the time of start of an enterprise. When framing personnel policies and rules. Applicable to unions of workers as well as associations of employers. Extends to the whole of India. A central legislation but administered and enforced by the state governments. Defines trade union. Registration of a trade union by any seven or nine workers of an establishment on applying with a copy of the rules of the union, the name and address, and the list of office bearers.

Cancellation and dissolution of trade unions. Obligations of registered trade unions.

Types of unemployment

Rights of registered trade unions. Throughout the running of the enterprise. This is how economies create value—by finding opportunities for mutually beneficial trades. The minimum wage interferes with this process in the unskilled labor market.

It reduces employment, which is the same as saying that fewer transactions take place. Because each voluntary transaction by definition generates a surplus, anything that reduces the number of transactions causes a loss of surplus. We can represent that inefficiency graphically. Toolkit: Section You can review the different kinds of surplus, as well as the concepts of efficiency and deadweight loss, in the toolkit.

With no minimum wage a , all the possible gains from trade in the market are realized, but with a minimum wage b , some gains from trade are lost because there are fewer transactions. In part a of Figure In the labor market, it is the firm who is the buyer.

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The total buyer surplus is the profit Revenues minus costs. Graphically, it is the area below the labor demand curve and above the market wage. Rules for employment of children, young persons and women Rules for annual leave, maternity leave, sickness and casual leave, etc. Rules for employment and termination of service.

Inflation and the Minimum Wage

Maintenance of registers and records and display of notices. Obligations of employers. Obligations of employees. At the time of start of an enterprise. When framing personnel policies and rules. Applicable to unions of workers as well as associations of employers. Extends to the whole of India.

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